History of Beer

Beer is one of the world’s oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic beverages. It ranks as the third most popular drink globally, trailing only potable water and tea. It is crafted through the brewing and fermentation of starches. These starches are primarily sourced from cereal grains, with malted barley being the most common choice. Wheat, maize (corn), rice, and oats also find their way into the mix. During the brewing process, the fermentation of starch sugars within the wort gives rise to ethanol and carbonation, giving birth to beer’s distinctive character.

Friends drinking beerHops are a prevalent addition to modern beer, contributing bitterness, flavor, and natural preservation attributes. However, alternative flavoring agents like gruit, herbs, or fruits may substitute or complement hops. In the commercial brewing arena, natural carbonation is frequently replaced with forced carbonation during processing.

Historical Record

The historical record offers glimpses into humanity’s deep-rooted connection with beer. Ancient texts, such as the Code of Hammurabi, even regulated beer production and the operation of beer establishments. “The Hymn to Ninkasi,” a Mesopotamian ode to the goddess of beer, served both as a prayer and a mnemonic device to preserve beer-making knowledge in cultures with limited literacy.

Beer is conveniently packaged in bottles and cans. It is readily available on tap, particularly in pubs and bars. The brewing industry encompasses powerful multinational corporations. There are also countless smaller producers, ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries. Modern beer typically boasts an alcohol by volume (ABV) content ranging from 4% to 6%, though it can span anywhere from 0.5% to 20%. Some audacious breweries have even crafted brews surpassing 40% ABV.

Beer transcends mere libation. It is an integral part of the cultural fabric of many nations. It finds its place in social traditions like beer festivals. Beer thrives within a vibrant pub culture encompassing activities such as pub crawls, trivia nights, and traditional pub games.

Furthermore, when beer undergoes distillation, the resulting spirit transforms into a variant of whisky, adding another dimension to the world of distilled spirits.


In the early iterations of English and Scandinavian languages, the common term for beer was the ancestor of the word “ale” as we know it in Modern English.

Neon Sign saying Beer Beer BeerThe term “beer” as we use it today in English has its origins in Old English “bēor,” which, in turn, traces back to Common Germanic roots. While it is not documented in the East Germanic branch of languages, it has a presence in both West Germanic and North Germanic dialects, such as modern Dutch and German (“bier”) and Old Norse (“bjórr”). The precise etymology of the word has sparked debate over time. Three primary theories have emerged. Beer may have arisen from Proto-Germanic *beuzą, with potential links to Proto-Indo-European *bʰeusóm, meaning ‘brewer’s yeast or beer dregs’. It might be connected to the word “barley”. Or it could have been borrowed from the Latin term “bibere,” meaning ‘to drink.’

In the realms of Old English and Old Norse, the term for beer didn’t refer to a malted alcoholic beverage akin to ale. Instead described a sweet, potent concoction crafted from honey and the juice of various fruits, excluding grapes. This type of beer was far less prevalent than ale. Perhaps it was served in small drinking vessels akin to those occasionally unearthed in early medieval burial items. It more closely resembled beverages like mead or cider. However, in the German language, the meaning of the word “beer” expanded to encompass the sense of the word “ale” even before the earliest written records we have.

As hopped ale from Germany gained popularity in England during the late Middle Ages, the English word “beer” gradually took on the German interpretation. Consequently, in English as well, “beer” evolved during the early modern period to signify hopped, malt-based alcoholic beverages.


Rock Mortars Raqefet Cave near Haifa in Israel

Rock Mortars Raqefet Cave near Haifa in Israel

Beer boasts a remarkable history dating back millennia. Archaeological findings unearthed traces of a beer-like concoction with a gruel-like consistency, produced around 13,000 years ago by the semi-nomadic Natufians for ritual gatherings at the Raqefet Cave near Haifa in Israel. There’s even evidence of beer production at Göbekli Tepe during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period (around 8500 BC to 5500 BC). The earliest chemical proof of barley-based beer production dates to approximately 3500–3100 BC at the Godin Tepe site in the Zagros Mountains of western Iran. It’s possible that beer’s history stretches back even further to around 10,000 BC when cereal cultivation began.

Ancient Egypt

Beer finds a place in the written records of ancient Egypt. Some historians speculate that beer played a pivotal role in the emergence of civilizations. In the city of Uruk (modern-day Iraq), nearly 5,000 years ago, laborers received their wages in the form of beer.

References to beer consumption also appear in the Epic of Gilgamesh.

Alulu Beer Recipe

Alulu Beer Recipe

Further afield, the Ebla tablets from 2500 BC in Syria provide evidence of beer production. In China around 7000 BC, a fermented beverage involving rice and fruit was created, although it lacked the sake-like amylolytic fermentation using mold.

During India’s Vedic period, a beer-like drink known as sura was documented. Xenophon noted the production of beer in Armenia during his travels.

Beer Production

Beer production potentially emerged independently in various cultures. They realized that sweet liquids, derived from starch sources, could be fermented into a delightful libation. Bread and beer contributed to prosperity, affording societies the time to develop technologies and build civilizations.

In Europe, Germanic and Celtic tribes had been brewing beer as far back as 3000 BC, albeit on a smaller, domestic scale. These early European brews were far from modern beer and might have featured fruits, honey, various plants, spices, and even narcotic herbs. Notably absent was the inclusion of hops, a later addition mentioned in Europe around 822 AD by a Carolingian Abbot and again in 1067 by abbess Hildegard of Bingen.

Purity Law

The year 1516 marked a significant moment when William IV, Duke of Bavaria, enacted the Reinheitsgebot (purity law). One of the oldest food-quality regulations still in use today. According to this law, the sole permissible ingredients for beer are water, hops, and barley-malt.

The Industrial Revolution witnessed the transition from artisanal to industrial beer production. Domestic brewing gradually diminished in significance by the late 19th century. Innovations like hydrometers and thermometers empowered brewers with greater control and knowledge of the brewing process.

Brown Bottle Introduced

Brown Bottles and glass of beerIn 1912, the Joseph Schlitz Brewing Company introduced brown bottles. This was a widely adopted practice worldwide to shield beer from harmful light, preserving its quality and stability.

Today, the brewing industry is a global enterprise comprising dominant multinational corporations. There also is a multitude of smaller producers, ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries. In 2006, the world consumed over 133 billion liters of beer. This generated total global revenues exceeding $294.5 billion. China, in 2010, surpassed the United States in beer consumption, reaching 450 million hectoliters (45 billion liters). Only a small fraction was premium draught beer, in contrast to countries like France and Germany.

A widely publicized 2018 study warned of potential volatility in beer availability and pricing due to extreme drought and heat adversely affecting barley production.


The process of crafting beer is known as brewing. Typically, a dedicated facility for producing beer is referred to as a brewery. Beer can also be concocted at home, in which case the brewing site is often called a brewhouse. Companies engaged in beer production go by the names of breweries or brewing companies. When beer is brewed on a small scale for personal use it is commonly referred to as homebrewing regardless of where the brewing takes place. The majority of homebrewed beer is indeed made in one’s own residence. In history, domestic beer was often termed farmhouse ale.

Brewing beer has been regulated and taxed for centuries. Taxation in the UK primarily limited brewing to commercial establishments from the late 19th century onward. The UK government relaxed these regulations in 1963. This was followed by Australia in 1972 and the United States in 1978. Individual states in the US had the authority to enact their own production limitations, these changes facilitated the rise of homebrewing as a popular pastime.

Objective of Brewing

Mash TunThe primary objective of brewing is to transform a starch source into a sugary liquid referred to as wort. Subsequently ferment the wort with yeast to create the alcoholic beverage known as beer.

The initial phase, called “mashing,” involves blending the starch source (typically malted barley) with hot water in a mash tun. This process lasts approximately 1 to 2 hours. It converts starches into sugars, yielding sweet wort that is then separated from the grain. Subsequently, the grains undergo “sparging,” a rinsing process that maximizes the collection of fermentable liquid. Wort separation, which filters out spent grain from the wort and sparge water, is achieved through a traditional method called lautering. In modern breweries, filter frames, which allow for finer grist.

Many modern breweries employ continuous sparging, combining the original wort and sparge water. However, multiple runs may be collected, each with diminishing fermentable content, a practice known as the second and third runnings, often referred to as parti gyle brewing.

Sweet Wort

Beer Hops grain in glass on tableThe sweet wort derived from sparging is transferred to a kettle, often called a “copper” due to traditional copper construction. Here, it is boiled for approximately an hour. This allows the water to evaporate while preserving the sugars and other wort components. The process enhances starch source utilization and eliminates remaining enzymes from the mashing stage. During boiling, hops are added to impart bitterness, flavor, and aroma. Hops can be introduced at various times during the boil, affecting bitterness, flavor, and aroma differently.

Post-boiling, the hopped wort is cooled and prepared for yeast addition. In some breweries, the hopped wort may pass through a hopback. A hopback is a vessel filled with hops for aromatic infusion and filtration. Generally, the cooled hopped wort is transferred to a fermenter. This is where yeast is introduced. The fermentation process, spanning from one week to several months depending on yeast type and beer strength, converts wort into beer. During fermentation, ethanol is produced, and particulate matter in the wort settles. Once fermentation concludes, the yeast settles as well, resulting in clear beer.


Cask AlesFermentation often allows carbon dioxide to escape through a trap. This leaves the beer lightly carbonated. Carbonation can be enhanced by transferring beer to a pressurized container and introducing carbon dioxide. Or by transferring it prior to full fermentation completion, building carbon dioxide pressure. Alternatively, unfiltered beer with yeast is sometimes bottled with added sugar to achieve desired carbonation levels.

Fermentation may occur in two stages: primary and secondary. Most alcohol production is in primary fermentation. Then the beer is often moved to a new vessel for secondary fermentation. Secondary fermentation is employed when extended storage or greater clarity is needed.

Once the beer completes fermentation, it is packaged, typically in casks for cask ale or in kegs, aluminum cans, or bottles for other types of beer.


Beer’s fundamental components include water, a starch source (like malted barley or malted maize, as seen in the preparation of Tiswin and Tesgüino), brewer’s yeast for fermentation, and flavoring agents such as hops. When a combination of starch sources is used, often with an adjunct like maize (corn), rice, wheat, or sugar, it is termed an adjunct. Less commonly used starch sources include millet, sorghum. In Africa cassava root is used. In Brazil potato and agave in Mexico. The collective composition of these starch sources in a beer recipe is referred to as the grain bill.


Water plays a pivotal role in beer, constituting about 93% of its weight. While water itself is ostensibly flavorless, the level of dissolved minerals, specifically bicarbonate ions, influences the beer’s final taste. Regional variations in water properties historically defined particular beer styles in different areas. For example, Dublin’s hard water suited stout production like Guinness. The soft water of the Plzeň Region in the Czech Republic was ideal for brewing Pilsner (pale lager), like Pilsner Urquell. In Burton, England, gypsum-rich water benefitted pale ale production, leading brewers to introduce gypsum in a process called Burtonisation.


Malted Barley before RoastingThe “mash ingredients” serve as the starch source in beer,. They provide fermentable material and significantly affect the beer’s strength and flavor. Malted grains are the most common starch source. This is produced by soaking grains in water, initiating germination, and drying them in a kiln. This malting process generates enzymes that convert grain starches into fermentable sugars. Varied roasting times and temperatures yield different malt colors, with darker malts resulting in darker beers. Barley malt is the predominant starch source in most beers due to its fibrous hull, which remains attached during threshing. After malting, barley is milled, removing the hull and breaking the grain into large pieces. These pieces remain with the grain during mashing and function as a filter bed during lautering, the process of separating sweet wort from insoluble grain material. Brewers may also use other malted or unmalted grains, including wheat, rice, oats, rye, and less commonly, corn and sorghum. Gluten-free beer has been developed for those unable to consume grains like wheat, barley, and rye, using sorghum without barley malt.


Hops on the vineHops are the primary commercial flavoring agent in beer. The hop vine’s flower is utilized for flavoring and preservation in almost all modern beers. These hop flowers are frequently referred to as “hops.” The earliest historical record of hop use in beer dates back to 822 AD in monastery rules penned by Adalhard the Elder. Nevertheless, the widespread cultivation of hops for beer is primarily attributed to the 13th century. Before hops became the dominant flavoring, beer was flavored with other plants such as grains of paradise or alehoof. Combinations of aromatic herbs, berries, and even ingredients like wormwood were combined to create a mixture known as gruit. They served the same purpose as hops do today. Some contemporary beers, like Fraoch’ by the Scottish Heather Ales company and Cervoise Lancelot by the French Brasserie-Lancelot company, employ alternative plants for flavoring.

Hops contribute several desirable characteristics to beer, including bitterness that balances malt sweetness (measured on the International Bitterness Units scale). Hops also add floral, citrus, and herbal aromas and flavors. They also add antibiotic properties favoring brewer’s yeast, and aiding “head retention” (the longevity of a foamy head created by carbonation). Hops also serve as a preservative due to their acidity.


Yeast is the microorganism responsible for beer fermentation. Sugars extracted from grains is metabolized by the yeast, producing alcohol and carbon dioxide, transforming wort into beer. Yeast not only drives fermentation but also shapes the beer’s character and flavor. The two predominant types of yeast used in beer production are top-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae and bottom-fermenting Saccharomyces pastorianus. Brettanomyces yeast ferments lambics. Torulaspora delbrueckii is used in Bavarian weissbier. Before the role of yeast in fermentation was understood, wild or airborne yeasts drove fermentation. Some styles, like lambics, still rely on this method today. Most modern brewing uses pure yeast cultures.

Clarifying Agents

To clarify beer, some brewers incorporate clarifying agents or finings that precipitate (collect as a solid) along with protein solids, typically present in trace amounts in the final product. This process enhances beer’s clarity and brightness. Unlike traditional and older styles of beer, such as wheat beers, which often appear cloudy. Clarifying agents may include isinglass from fish swimbladders, Irish moss from seaweed, kappa carrageenan from Kappaphycus cottonii seaweed. Artificial agents like Polyclar, or gelatin may also be used. Beers marked “suitable for vegans” are clarified with seaweed or artificial agents.

Brewing Industry

Modern Closed Fermentation VesselsIn the 21st century, the brewing industry has witnessed a trend of larger breweries acquiring smaller ones to achieve economies of scale. In 2002, South African Breweries made a significant move by acquiring the North American Miller Brewing Company, forming SABMiller. They became the world’s second-largest brewery, following North American Anheuser-Busch. By 2004, Belgian Interbrew stood as the third-largest brewery by volume, and Brazilian AmBev ranked fifth. Their merger resulted in the formation of InBev, now the largest brewery in the world. In 2007, SABMiller gained further ground by acquiring Royal Grolsch, the renowned Dutch premium beer brand, surpassing InBev and Anheuser-Busch. In 2008, InBev, the second-largest, acquired Anheuser-Busch, the third-largest, once again establishing itself as the world’s largest brewer.

As of 2020, market research firm Technavio reports that AB InBev remains the world’s largest brewing company, with Heineken in the second position, followed by CR Snow, Carlsberg, and Molson Coors.


Microbreweries, also known as craft breweries, produce limited quantities of beer. The specific production limit defining a microbrewery varies by region and authority. In the United States, for instance, it is set at 15,000 US beer barrels per year (equivalent to 460 thousand US gallons). A brewpub, a subtype of microbrewery, combines a brewery with a pub or similar drinking establishment. The highest concentration of breweries globally, with many being microbreweries, can be found in the German Region of Franconia. The district of Upper Franconia boasts approximately 200 breweries. The Benedictine Weihenstephan brewery in Bavaria, Germany, traces its origins back to the year 768. Historical documents referencing a hop garden in the area paying tithe to the monastery. In 1040, the brewery received its license from the City of Freising, making it the oldest working brewery in the world.


Varieties of Beer types in glassesAlthough various types of beer are brewed worldwide, the fundamental principles of beer brewing are universal. In traditional European brewing hubs like Germany, Belgium, England, and the Czech Republic, local beer variations have developed over time.

In 1977, English writer Michael Jackson laid the foundation for categorizing beers globally in accordance with regional customs and nomenclature in his book “The World Guide To Beer.” Building upon Jackson’s work, Fred Eckhardt expanded upon beer styles in 1989 with his publication “The Essentials of Beer Style.


Top-fermented beers are typically crafted using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a type of top-fermenting yeast that forms clumps and rises to the surface during fermentation. This process usually occurs at temperatures ranging from 15 to 25 °C (59 to 77 °F). At these temperature ranges, yeast generates notable quantities of esters and other secondary compounds responsible for flavor and aroma. As a result, top-fermented beers often exhibit subtle fruity notes reminiscent of apple, pear, pineapple, banana, plum, or prune, among others.

The introduction of hops from Flanders into England during the 15th century led to a shift in terminology. “Ale” came to refer to an unhopped fermented beverage, while “beer” described a brew infused with hops.

Real Ale

Man Holding beer mug smiling with a thumbs upThe term “real ale” was coined by the Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA) in 1973. It refers to beer brewed using traditional ingredients. They area matured through secondary fermentation within the container from which it is dispensed. Then served without the addition of extraneous carbon dioxide. This category encompasses both bottle conditioned and cask conditioned beers.

Pale ale is a beer variety characterized by the use of top-fermenting yeast and primarily pale malt. It holds a prominent position among the world’s major beer styles. The India pale ale (IPA) variety being particularly popular.

Mild ale is known for its predominantly malty flavor profile. It typically features a dark hue and an alcohol by volume (abv) ranging from 3% to 3.6%. However, there are lighter-hued milds as well as stronger variants with abv levels reaching 6% and higher.

Wheat Beer

Wheat beer is brewed using a substantial proportion of wheat, often combined with malted barley. These beers are typically top-fermented. Their flavor can vary significantly depending on the specific style.

Stout is a dark beer produced using roasted barley and typically fermented with slow-acting yeast. Variations include dry stout (such as Guinness), sweet stout, and Imperial (or Russian) stout.

Porter, like stout, is a dark beer but made primarily with malted barley. The term “porter” was initially used in 1721 to describe a dark brown beer favored by London’s street and river porters. Over time, this beer also acquired the name “stout,” although the use of “stout” dates back to as early as 1677. The histories of stout and porter are intertwined, with the key distinction being whether malted barley is used in the brewing process.


Lagar Beer in a glass next to a hamburgerLager is a type of beer that undergoes a cool fermentation process. Among all beer varieties, pale lagers hold the distinction of being the most widely consumed worldwide, with many falling under the “pilsner” category. The term “lager” is derived from the German word “lagern,” which means “to store.” This name originated because brewers in Bavaria used to store beer in cool cellars and caves during the warm summer months. They noticed that these beers continued to ferment and clarify when stored in such cool conditions.

Lager yeast is a cool, bottom-fermenting yeast known as Saccharomyces pastorianus. It typically experiences the primary fermentation phase at temperatures ranging from 7 to 12 °C (45 to 54 °F). Afterward, it undergoes an extended secondary fermentation period at temperatures between 0 and 4 °C (32 to 39 °F), known as the lagering phase. During this secondary stage, the lager beer becomes clearer and develops a milder flavor profile. The colder conditions also suppress the natural production of esters and other byproducts, resulting in a beer with a “cleaner” taste.

Thanks to advancements in modern yeast strains, most lager breweries now use shorter periods of cold storage, typically lasting 1 to 3 weeks.


Beer undergoes evaluation and analysis based on its color, strength, and bitterness. The perceived bitterness is quantified using the International Bitterness Units scale (IBU). IBU was established through collaboration between the American Society of Brewing Chemists and the European Brewery Convention. 


aerial view of beer glassesThe color of beer is primarily influenced by the type of malt used in its production. The most common color is a pale amber, which is achieved through the use of pale malts. Beers labeled as pale lager or pale ale are typically crafted using malt dried with coke as a fuel source. The practice of roasting malt with coke began in 1642. It wasn’t until around 1703 that the term “pale ale” was coined.

In terms of sales volume, the majority of today’s beer is based on the pale lager that was first brewed in 1842 in Pilsen, located in what is now the Czech Republic. Modern pale lagers are characterized by their light color, noticeable carbonation (effervescent bubbles). They have an average alcohol by volume content of approximately 5%. Notable examples of pale lagers include Pilsner Urquell, Bitburger, Heineken, as well as American brands like Budweiser, Coors, and Miller.

Dark beers are typically brewed using a base of pale malt or lager malt, with a small proportion of darker malt added to achieve the desired hue. Other coloring agents, such as caramel, are also commonly employed to darken beers. Very dark beers, like stouts, utilize dark or patent malts that have undergone more extensive roasting. Some even include roasted unmalted barley in their recipe.


The alcohol content of beer spans a wide range. Typically falling between less than 3% alcohol by volume (abv) to around 14% abv. In some cases, the strength can be further increased to approximately 20% abv by using champagne yeast. Some up to 55% abv through the freeze-distillation process.

2 women pouring beersThe specific alcohol content of beer varies based on regional traditions and beer styles. For instance, the well-known pale lagers typically have an abv range of 4–6%, with an average of around 5%. British ales tend to be lower in alcohol, often around 4% abv. Some Belgian table beers have an alcohol content as low as 1%–4%. Light beers are approximately 4% abv. At the lowest end of the spectrum are dealcoholized beers, containing less than 0.05% alcohol, often referred to as near beer.

The alcohol in beer primarily results from the fermentation of sugars produced during the brewing process. The quantity of fermentable sugars in the wort, combined with the type of yeast used for fermentation are the primary factors influencing alcohol content. To increase alcohol content, brewers may introduce additional fermentable sugars. Enzymes can be added to convert complex carbohydrates (starches) into fermentable sugars as well. However, yeast has limitations and cannot survive at alcohol concentrations exceeding 12% by volume. Factors like low temperatures and insufficient fermentation time can also hinder yeast activity and lower alcohol content.

Stronger Beers

In recent decades, there has been a trend toward stronger beers. For example, Vetter 33, a doppelbock with 10.5% abv, was recognized in the 1994 Guinness Book of World Records as one of the strongest beers at the time. Since then, some brewers have used champagne yeasts to push the alcohol content even higher. Samuel Adams achieved 20% abv with Millennium, and later reached 25.6% abv with Utopias. In the UK, Baz’s Super Brew by Parish Brewery reached 23% abv. BrewDog produced Ghost Deer, claiming to be the world’s strongest beer produced solely by fermentation, at 28% abv in 2011.

The title of the strongest beer was held by Schorschbräu’s 2011 Schorschbock 57, boasting 57.5% abv. Prior to that, BrewDog created The End of History, a 55% Belgian ale, in 2010. Both of these beers used the fractional freezing method, where a strong ale is partially frozen and the ice is removed until the desired strength is reached. This process has raised questions about whether these products should be classified as spirits rather than beer. Schorschbräu’s Schorschbock, a 31% abv eisbock, and Hair of the Dog’s Dave, a 29% abv barley wine made in 1994, also employed the fractional freezing method. Additionally, a Dutch brewery humorously claimed to have created the world’s strongest beer, a 60% abv blend of beer with whiskey, in July 2010.

How Beer is Served

The most prevalent method of serving beer in bars worldwide is through draught (also spelled “draft”) beer dispensed from a pressurized keg, using a lever-style dispenser and a spout. This process involves pressurizing a metal keg with carbon dioxide (CO2) gas, which propels the beer to the dispensing tap or faucet. Some beers are even served with a nitrogen/carbon dioxide mixture, known for producing fine bubbles, resulting in a dense head and a creamy mouthfeel. Additionally, certain types of beer can be found in smaller, disposable kegs known as beer balls. In traditional pubs, pull levers for well-known beer brands may bear the beer’s logo and trademark.

Glasses of beer toasting cheersBeer Widget

In the 1980s, Guinness introduced a remarkable innovation called the beer widget, which is a nitrogen-pressurized ball contained within a can. The widget creates a dense, tightly-knit head in the beer, much like that achieved through a nitrogen system. The terms “draft” and “draught” are sometimes used as marketing labels for canned or bottled beers containing a beer widget or those that are cold-filtered instead of pasteurized.


Cask-conditioned ales, often referred to as cask ales, represent a distinct category of unfiltered and unpasteurized beers. CAMRA, the Campaign for Real Ale, designates these beers as “real ale.” In pubs, cask ales are treated with particular care. Upon arrival, a cask is placed horizontally on a frame called a “stillage,” which keeps it steady at the correct angle. The cask is then allowed to cool to cellar temperature, typically between 11–13 °C or 52–55 °F, before it is tapped and vented. To vent the cask, a tap is inserted through a rubber bung at the cask’s lower end, and a hard spile or similar tool is employed to create an opening on the cask’s side, which is now uppermost. This process may disturb sediment in the beer, so the cask is left to settle and fully condition, which can take from several hours to several days. Once this is complete, the beer is ready to be served, either via a hand pump pulling it through a beer line or simply allowing it to flow naturally by gravity into the glass.


In terms of environmental impact, draught beer presents a distinct advantage over bottled beer, with a potential reduction of up to 68% due to differences in packaging. A life cycle study of one beer brand, encompassing grain production, brewing, bottling, distribution, and waste management, has shown that a 6-pack of micro-brewed beer results in approximately 3 kilograms (6.6 pounds) of CO2 emissions. Additionally, it’s estimated that the loss of natural habitat potential from a 6-pack of micro-brewed beer is 2.5 square meters (26 square feet). Downstream emissions related to distribution, retail, storage, and waste disposal can account for over 45% of the CO2 emissions from a bottled micro-brewed beer. Where permitted by law, using a refillable jug, reusable bottle, or other sustainable containers to transport draught beer from a store or bar, rather than purchasing pre-bottled beer, can significantly reduce the environmental impact associated with beer consumption.

How Beer is Packaged

Beer BottlesThe majority of beers undergo yeast removal through filtering before they are packaged in bottles and cans. Nevertheless, bottle-conditioned beers maintain a portion of yeast, either due to being unfiltered or after being filtered and then re-inoculated with fresh yeast. It is generally recommended to pour these beers gently, leaving any yeast sediment settled at the bottle’s bottom. However, some individuals prefer to incorporate the yeast into the pour, a common practice with wheat beers. For instance, when serving a hefeweizen wheat beer, around 90% of the contents are poured, and the remaining portion is gently swirled to suspend the sediment before pouring it into the glass. Alternatively, the bottle can be inverted prior to opening. Glass bottles are the standard choice for bottle-conditioned beers.

Many beers are available in cans, although the proportion of canned beer varies between countries. In Sweden in 2001, 63.9% of beer was sold in cans. People may choose to either drink directly from the can or pour the beer into a glass. An innovative technology developed by Crown Holdings for the 2010 FIFA World Cup is the ‘full aperture’ can. This type of can features a lid that is entirely removed during the opening process, effectively converting the can into a drinking cup. Cans offer a range of advantages, including safeguarding the beer from light to prevent “skunked” beer and featuring a seal that is less prone to leakage over time compared to bottles. Initially, cans were celebrated as a technological advancement for maintaining beer quality but later became closely associated with less expensive, mass-produced beers, despite offering storage qualities similar to bottles. Some breweries also use plastic (PET) bottles for packaging.


Close up of a chilled beer in a glass with a foam head.The temperature at which beer is served plays a significant role in the drinker’s experience. Warmer temperatures tend to bring out the full spectrum of flavors in a beer, while cooler temperatures provide a more refreshing experience. Preferences regarding beer temperature vary depending on the type of beer being consumed.

For instance, most people enjoy pale lagers when they are served chilled, as it enhances their crispness and refreshing qualities. Low- or medium-strength pale ales are typically best enjoyed when served cool. On the other hand, strong barley wines or imperial stouts are often appreciated when served at room temperature, allowing their complex flavors to shine.

Beer expert Michael Jackson proposed a five-level scale for serving temperatures, suggesting:
  1. Well chilled (around 7°C or 45°F) for “light” beers like pale lagers.
  2. Chilled (around 8°C or 46°F) for beers like Berliner Weisse and wheat beers.
  3. Lightly chilled (around 9°C or 48°F) for dark lagers, altbier, and German wheat beers.
  4. Cellar temperature (around 13°C or 55°F) for regular British ales, stouts, and most Belgian specialties.
  5. Room temperature (around 15.5°C or 60°F) for strong dark ales, especially trappist beers, and barley wines.

The practice of drinking chilled beer became widespread with the advent of artificial refrigeration, particularly in regions that focused on brewing pale lagers by the 1870s. Chilling beer enhances its refreshing qualities, although temperatures below 15.5°C (60°F) can start to dull the perception of its flavors, with a significant reduction below 10°C (50°F). Conversely, serving beer unchilled, whether cool or at room temperature, allows its flavors to be more pronounced. In the UK, Cask Marque, a non-profit organization dedicated to beer quality, has established a standard temperature range of 12°C to 14°C (53°F to 57°F) for serving cask ales.

How Beer is kept

Friends toasting with different styles of beer glassesBeer is enjoyed from a variety of vessels, including traditional glassware, beer steins, mugs, pewter tankards, beer bottles, cans, and, at music festivals, bars, and nightclubs, plastic cups. The choice of vessel can significantly impact the way a beer is perceived and can enhance the unique characteristics of each style.

Beer Specific Glasses

The type of glass used for serving beer can greatly influence the overall beer-drinking experience and highlight the specific qualities of the beer style. Many breweries offer branded glassware designed exclusively for their own beers, not only as a marketing strategy but also to enhance the enjoyment of their products.

The art of pouring beer also plays a vital role in its presentation. Factors such as the rate of flow from the tap or container, the angle at which the glass is held, and the location of the pour within the glass, whether in the center or down the side, all contribute to the final result. These factors affect elements like the size and persistence of the head, the intricate patterns left on the glass as the head recedes (known as lacing), and the controlled release of carbonation.

In bars and pubs, you’ll often come across a beer tower, a dispensing device composed of a cylinder connected to a beer cooling mechanism at its base. Beer is poured directly from the beer tower into the drinking vessel, providing an efficient and visually appealing way to serve beer to patrons.

Society and Culture

In numerous societies, beer holds the distinction of being the most popular alcoholic beverage. Beer drinking is often accompanied by a variety of social traditions and activities, such as engaging in pub games like cards or darts, attending beer festivals, delving into zythology (the study of beer), embarking on pub crawls, touring breweries, participating in beer-centric tourism, or even beer rating endeavors. Drinking games like beer pong also enjoy widespread popularity. A relatively recent addition to the beer world is the profession of the beer sommelier, who educates restaurant patrons about different types of beer and their ideal food pairings.

Relaxed Inhibitions

3 beers with the words "have a beer" and a banner that says "relax"Beer serves as a social lubricant in many societies, fostering conviviality and shared experiences. Its consumption is a global phenomenon, with breweries found in various parts of the world, including Middle Eastern countries like Syria and several African nations. Sales of beer consistently outpace those of wine, making it the second most popular alcoholic beverage overall.

A noteworthy study published in the Neuropsychopharmacology journal in 2013 revealed an intriguing finding: the taste of beer alone could stimulate dopamine activity in the brains of male participants, leading to a greater desire to drink more. The study involved 49 men who underwent positron emission tomography scans while a computer-controlled device sprayed tiny amounts of beer, water, and a sports drink onto their tongues. Remarkably, the taste of beer significantly increased participants’ craving for more, even though the alcohol content in the spray was insufficient to induce intoxication. The results demonstrated that the flavor of beer triggered a release of dopamine, highlighting the unique appeal of its taste.

Beer and Food

Certain breweries have developed beers specifically designed to complement various types of food. While wine writer Malcolm Gluck has debated the necessity of pairing beer with food, beer experts like Roger Protz and Melissa Cole have contested that perspective, emphasizing the delightful harmony that can exist between beer and culinary creations.

Other beer related drinks

Across the globe, a rich tapestry of traditional and ancient starch-based beverages falls under the category of beer.


In Africa, various ethnic communities craft beers from sorghum or millet, examples being Oshikundu in Namibia and Tella in Ethiopia.


Kyrgyzstan boasts its own millet-based beer, a low-alcohol, somewhat porridge-like concoction known as “Bozo.” In Bhutan, Nepal, Tibet, and Sikkim, millet plays a key role in Chhaang, a popular semi-fermented rice and millet beverage cherished in the eastern Himalayas. Further east in China, one encounters Huangjiu and Choujiu, traditional rice-derived libations with ties to the world of beer.

South America

In the Andes of South America, Chicha is crafted from germinated maize (corn), while indigenous peoples in Brazil create Cauim, a time-honored elixir produced since pre-Columbian times. Cauim is made by chewing manioc, allowing an enzyme (amylase) present in human saliva to break down the starch into fermentable sugars. This process bears similarity to Masato, a beverage found in Peru.


Certain beers trace their origins to bread, a connection harkening back to the earliest iterations of beer. In Finland, Sahti is brewed using bread, while Kvass in Russia and Ukraine, as well as Bouza in Sudan, share this tradition. Some 4000 years ago, fermented bread was utilized in Mesopotamia. Inspired by these ancient recipes, food waste activists have adopted the practice of using leftover bread to replace a portion of the malted barley otherwise employed in crafting their artisanal ales.

Beer Continues to be a Favorite

Beer has a long and fascinating history that dates back thousands of years. From its origins in ancient Mesopotamia to its current status as one of the world’s most popular alcoholic beverages, beer has played an important role in human culture and society. The discovery of beer may have been an accidental find, and it was initially made at home by women. Beer has been enjoyed by many civilizations throughout history, including the Sumerians, Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. Today, beer is a mass-produced and mass-consumed beverage, and it continues to be a beloved drink enjoyed by people all over the world.